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Recent Articles

The Combined Effect of 2,4-Epibrassinolide and Chilling Stress on Tomato Cultivars Differing in Maturity

Low temperature (but above-freezing) during germination and early seedling growth of chilling-sensitive crop is one of the most significant limiting factors in the productivity. 2,4-Epibrassinolide (24-EB) is one of the most active forms of brassinosteroids are multifunctional plant hormones that can regulate development and respond to abiotic stresses. The effect of seed-pretreatment with 24-EB (12.5 μg/L) on photosynthetic characteristics, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities under chilling stress were investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars: Kulon (early ripening) and Yakhont (mid-early). Results showed that the use of 24-EB led to more pronounced changes in the pigment composition in Yakhont in the absence of a stress factor, whereas in Kulon under chilling stress (2 o C for 24 h). 24-EB pretreatment minimized the damage to cell membranes in tomato plants caused by chilling stress. The tolerance to chilling stress in Yakhont was higher than Kulon (by electrolyte leakage and content of malondialdehyde assay). Under these conditions, oxidative processes in plants of Yakhont did not show significant difference. We have not established the effect of 24-EB on the level of low molecular weight antioxidants in tomato cultivars (measured by inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical method). The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts in Yakhont was twice as high as in Kulon under all experimental conditions (with/without 24-EB, 22/2 o C). It was concluded that the less pronounced reaction of plants of Yakhont to the use of 24-EB and chilling stress is due to their genetically determined higher cold resistance than that of Kulon.

Medial Meniscus Dislocation: One Case Report and Literature Review

We present rare case of medial meniscus dislocation, in a 25 years old female patient who was admitted in emergency department. With painful locked left knee. Arthroscopy was done next day showing isolated dislocation of medial meniscus with the absence of any medial meniscus tear. Only reduction of the medial meniscus was done. Postoprative MRI confirmed the diagnosis and showed no tears in the medial meniscus. Physiotherapy and clinical follow up were done with good results and no recurrence for 4 months postoperative.

On Features and Measures of Psychological Wellbeing

Low levels of psychological wellbeing pose considerable burdens on society in terms of mortality, unemployment, absenteeism, medications, social services, morbidity, and in-out patients’ costs. Early detection and preventive treatments may help to reduce costs and improve quality of life. Researchers have proposed several measures and tried to identify new measures of psychological wellbeing, but there is not a universally accepted measure, and all the existing ones have their own limitations. This paper discusses research results focusing on behavioral, psychological, social, demographic features and biomarkers of psychological wellbeing and mental disorders associated with low psychological wellbeing levels. The features which are addressed in the paper are categorized into three groups: affecting features, features for therapy and detecting features. This categorization is described and defended.

An Innovative Look at Buckling of Cracked Ghraphene Nano Sheets Using Novel Extended Molecular Mechanics Method

In this paper, we take a creative look at the effect of cracking on the buckling of graphene sheets. We introduced a significant improvement in molecular mechanical calculations that more accurately examine the behavior of atomic bonds during the instability of nanostructures in the presence of defects. A molecular mechanics method based on the modified couple stress (MCS) theory to consider the size effect on the graphene plate is introduced. Primary cracks with different lengths, orientations, and numbers were examined. For each crack, buckling parameters such as critical load and buckling modes of graphene sheets were investigated. This model has better computational performance and less computational compactness than other models. Our studies show that cracks perpendicular to the load direction have a greater effect on buckling parameters, including modes and critical buckling load than cracks aligned to the critical load. Increasing the crack length will further reduce the critical buckling load. The effect of the number of cracks in two directions in buckling parameters was investigated. Increasing the number of cracks always decreases a critical buckling load. Increasing the number of cracks affects the first buckling mode more than others. The study of the eccentricity of cracks shows that with increasing the eccentricity distance, in cracks perpendicular to the loading direction, the critical buckling load will be further reduced. However, for cracks aligned with the load direction, increasing the eccentric distance has less effect on reducing the critical buckling load.